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Articles, Publications, Guides, The Missing Link

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These documents provide information about electrical safety, technical and reliability requirements of codes and standards

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National regulations and standards advocate TN-C-S system with PME for public electricity distribution. However in practice, a sort of TT system is used in more than 80% of the consumer premises, but with the earthed neutral conductor in distribution, which is an unestablished electrical network. (i.e., a TN-C-S network with PME, but with a missing link between N and PE at consumer installation).


Protective equipotential bonding is a recognized mandatory fault protective measure. This is achieved by linking MET and extraneous conductive parts (such as metal pipes, ducting, etc). The rules for making this mandatory protective measure is explicitly explained in IS standards. However, it is missing in 90% installation. Unawareness within the engineering community about this mandatory protective measure is shocking.


TN-S systems are supposed to be used in industrial and commercial installations following the rules in IS standards. However, regulations are generally misinterpreted, Neutral of the transformer (and DG) are earthed separately in soil (resembles a TT) and is called as TN-S. Here the link between exposed conductive parts at the installation and earthed terminal of the source is missing. Earth fault loop impedance will be high due to this missing link, resulting in non-disconnection of supply during fault and an accident.

These MISSING LINKS and lack of "misinterpreted associated knowledge" are the main reason for electrical accidents. In the first missing link, a few centimeter of wire is required, while in the second few meters of wire are required and in the third missing link, few 10’s of meters of wire are required.  Hence, we name this guide as THE MISSING LINK


explains the necessary improvements in a Low Voltage electrical installation to ensure safety and reliability. This technical handbook has already become a reference in electrical safety discussions. Due to the preparation of second edition of THE MISSING LINK, only printed copies are available. The book is available at free of cost. Write to us with your official address to get a free copy of the book.


Answer to following Myths and more

  • Separate Earth Pit

  • Chemical earth pit improve the system

  • Earth pit of 1 ohm is required for safety and operation of electronics.

  • Grounding & earthing:

safety standards article

ESE and other non standard LPS in India

One rod protection 100 + meter radius, one down conductor, and one earth electrode, are called modern, advanced, and other fancy names. This article compares an ESE rod used in India in comparison to NFC 17-102.

Digital Grounding Device

A new threat to electrical safety

DGD shorts Neutral and earth inside as a result create neutral circulating current in the installation.  It can camouflage one problem for certain time, but will create serious safety hazards


Safety in LV public electricity distribution

Regulation 14, 15 and 16, of CEA measures relating to safety and electric suppl 2010 Earthed conductor and Earthed Neutral conductor, How to make TN-S or TN-C-S as recommended in regulation for public over head LV supply.

public lv safety

TBT agreements and Indian Standards

National regulations play the central role for electrical safety, followed by installation standards (code of practice), product standards and the proper implementation of these subjects. 


Concepts of Safety in IEC and IS standards (LV system)

There was also a strong need to align IS732 with the work being accomplished at the international level, namely, IEC/TC 64 'Electrical Installations of Buildings', which cover comprehensively the relevant issues.

Mis concepts and the right way of earthing in LV system

The word “earth” and “earthing” is misunderstood across India as an electrode in soil. Good earthing is understood as an earth electrode with a low resistance to soil.


Electrical safety in LV system
The role of copper wires

Worldwide copper wires with class 1 or class 2 conductors are used for fixed wiring in an installation. In comparison copper with class 5 copper conductor is used in India. 


Few articles published during 2020 and 2021 are only available in this web page. More information can be found on

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